borrowed scenery - 借景
via: wikipedia & various sources (cf. Borrowed_scenery). see also garginz and http://fo.am/borrowed-scenery
Shakkei (借景 C:jie jing, J:shakkei) was originally codified in the oldest extant Japanese garden manual, the Sakuteiki (作庭記, Sakuteiki “Records of Garden Making”). This text, which is attributed to Tachibana Toshitsuna (橘俊綱, 1028-1094 CE), a son of the Byodoin's designer Fujiwara no Yorimichi (藤原頼通, 990-1074 CE), records the Heian period’s attention to a concept called “mono no aware” (物の哀れ) “the pathos of things”.
Four principle tenets guiding Japanese garden organization
shotoku no sansui (生得の山水, shotoku no sansui “natural mountain river”) intending to create in the likeness of nature
kōhan no shitagau (湖畔に従う, kōhan no shitagau “follow the lakeshore”) planning in accordance with the site topography
suchigaete (数値違えて, suchigaete “irregular numerical value”) designing with asymmetrical elements
fuzei (風情, fuzei “feeling of wind”) capturing and presenting the ambience
jiejing (借景) "borrow/lend scenery"
The Chinese counterpart of shakkei (借景) is jiejing (借景) “borrow/lend scenery”. According to the 1635 CE Chinese garden manual Yuanye (園冶), there are four categories of “borrowing”,
yuanjie (遠借 “distant borrowing”, e.g., mountains, lakes)
linjie (隣借 “adjacent borrowing”, neighboring buildings and features)
yangjie (仰借 “upward borrowing”, clouds, stars)
fujie (俯借 “downward borrowing”, rocks, ponds); respectively Japanese enshaku, rinshaku, gyōshaku, and fushaku.
Best known (still existing) shakkei gardens in Japan