The OuLiPo began in 1960 as an offshoot of the College of Pataphysics, quickly becoming an entity unto itself, its goal being the crossfertilization of literature and mathematics to supplant the Surrealist idea of 'automatic writing' and the general worship of 'inspiration' with the concept of the constraint. Early proponents of Algorithmic Art, Xanalogical Media and the general use of computers in literature, they developed a series of strategies ranging from the simple to the complex to aid in the creation of literature. While more interested in the actual process than any product, many OuLiPo members have found some success with works inspired by these methods, such as Raymond Queneau, Georges Perec, and Italo Calvino.
Mathews, Harry and Brotchie, Alastair. Oulipo Compendium. Atlas Press, November 1998. ISBN: 0947757961. http://www.oulipocompendium.com/
Motte, Warren F. Oulipo: A Primer of Potential Literature. Dalkey Archive, 1998. ISBN: 1-56478-187-9.
By OuLiPo members, utilizing constraints: