Force Control in Displacement (>1 cm)
Smoothness, minimum vibration needed to perceive a stimulus (ideal 250Hz)
Speed and Bandwidth: Response time (<1 sec)
Resolution (<3 cm)
Parts (< 10 euro/taxel)
Assembly (time and difficulty)
Efficiency: Power consumption
Quiescent power consumption should be low
Active power consumption should be not too high
Especially for electrical actuators (<10W?)
Consider limiting the number of possibly simultaneously active taxels to <100%
Heat dissipation (see Power above)
Prototype Materials Supply
(More information, links, and specifics on these below
Piezoelectric Composites (Actuators+Sensors): Active piezoelectric composites are constituted of uniaxially oriented piezoceramic fibres sandwiched between two interdigitated electrodes and embedded in a polymer matrix http://www.empa.ch
> Materials > Adaptive Materials Systems
Insect Robot resources:
(5-6 mm displacement, 4 pounds force, about 16W consumed, positionable
These are used in slat/blind adjustment, tilting things, etc. Has many great features and options, but, again, suspect power consumption (operating at 24V DC or 230V AC) may be too high.
Vibro Tactile Actuators: Tacter, VIBROTACTILE TRANSDUCERS: Currently, boards driving up to 12 tactors are available with serial or parallel interfaces, and in a PC104 format. USB and PCI compatible boards will be available in early 2003. All EAI’s driver/interface boards incorporate an on-board processor which can be pre-programmed to provide a variety of tactile outputs, or “patterns”, in response to simple processor commands.
Advantage: isolate electromechanical elements from panels
All mechanical solution (Problem: does not quite satisfy..
Hybrid electromechanical and cable solution (Problem: this doubles the number of mechanical stages we need!
Other Actuator Tech
Other Sensor Tech
darlexx: Darlexx® Stretch Barrier Laminates Darlexx® is an omni-directional spandex warp knit with a layer of a highly breathable elastic monolithic membrane. Windproof, waterproof, and breathable, Darlexx® provides solutions across a broad spectrum of end-product applications, such as warm water diving suits, ski racing suits, clean room hoods, boots, and gloves. Darlexx® comes in a 2-ply or 3-ply construction.
CDXA Elastic laminate composite: A breathable, stretch, 3-layer laminate consisting of a nonwoven base, elongated strands of Lycra® XA® ( a man-made elastomeric fiber), and a nonwoven cover, bonded together with a hot melt adhesive. There are two types: MDXA in which the Lycra XA strands are laid down in the machine direction, which gives the resulting laminate good elasticity in the machine direction; and CDXA in which the elongated strands are laid down in the cross-machine direction, which gives the resulting laminate good stretch and recovery in the cross direction plus strength and stability in the machine direction. Both of these elastic laminate composites can be tailored to suit individual applications.
Filltext powerspan and nyspan: powerspan is developed by using high tenacious yarn and elastic yarn, and designed for high abrasion resistance and Stretchability. suitable for work gloves, bags and heavy garments.
pressure sensitive liquid crystals, elastic liquid crystal films: Dispersed and encapsulated liquid crystals (organic compounds derived from cholesterol that change color with temperature) on elastic films can be used to detect hot spots on irregular or three-dimensional surfaces; shapes can be die-cut or vacuum-formed and treated with a pressure-sensitive adhesive for adhesion to another surface; and other films can be used to detect variances in temperature over a surface area.
Security & Specialty inks from Chromagen corporation : Thermochromic ink(reversible, irreversible), Photochromic ink, Thermochromic Liquid Crystal ink, UV-Phosphour ink, IR ink, Fluorscent ink(Numbering ink), Magnetic ink, Conductive ink, Fugitive ink, Optical Variable ink, Solvent Reactive ink, Chemical Reactive ink, Coin ink(Rubbing ink), Other Security and Specialty ink, Hydrochromic ink, Organic Phosphour ink, UV-IR Absorbing ink r. Blacklight ink, Piezochromic ink, Electrochromic ink, Optoelectrochromic ink, Flavour & Flavour ink, Phase Change Material, Glow in the dark ink
Name of company : Chromagen Corporation
Address : #202, 218-11, Jangwi 1-Dong, Sungbuk-Ku
Seoul Korea 136-834
Tel : +82-2-943-1685
Mobile : +82-(0)16-9816-8580 ( 24 hours open
Fax : +82-2-472-9107
E-mail : chromagen (at) yahoo (dot) co (dot) kr
Rachel received a data sheet for their piezochromic ink
Active MaterialFlexible Displays
Active Materials , Flexible Displays , Materials Textiles and
More potentially useful stuff
Electronic Supplies and Parts
These are based either on near-field ultrasound tracking, as in mimio http://www.mimio.com, or on extremely skewed video acquisition. I had in mind the latter, thinking that it might be possible to use video acquisition, with the touchable surface, say, separated from a coated translucent hard sheet of acrylic or something, so that pressure upon the material causes certain regions of the sheep to appear darker (or lighter) than others. Or, in any case, arranging things such that a pattern of light and dark is what would result from pressure upon the surface.
Air or liquid pressure
LCD display technology
We might be able to adopt an array based scanning scheme as used in LCDs. See
for more information on new LCD, OLED and other technologies.
A Boundary-tensioned mesh