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psychological_models_of_empathy [2010-05-06 11:03]
davegriffiths
psychological_models_of_empathy [2010-05-10 10:33] (current)
davegriffiths
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 =====Types of Empathy===== =====Types of Empathy=====
  
-  * Cognitive empathy - just an understanding of other's internal state+  * Cognitive empathy - an understanding of other's internal state
   * Affective empathy - includes the emotional reaction to other's internal state   * Affective empathy - includes the emotional reaction to other's internal state
  
-=====Emotional Contagion=====+====Emotional Contagion====
  
 Affective empathy can come from cognitive empathy, but can also come from direct transfer of emotions - "emotional contagion". This is important for social identity and group dynamics - eg. a herd needing to react quickly to the presence of a predator, which may only be spotted by a few individuals. Affective empathy can come from cognitive empathy, but can also come from direct transfer of emotions - "emotional contagion". This is important for social identity and group dynamics - eg. a herd needing to react quickly to the presence of a predator, which may only be spotted by a few individuals.
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 Emotional contagion may result in different immediate responses in more complex situations, such as 'gloating'. Emotional contagion may result in different immediate responses in more complex situations, such as 'gloating'.
  
-=====OCC Theory (used for FAtiMA)=====+====Empathic processes=====
  
-{{:occ.png|}}+The separation of empathy into cognition and it's results are important because the outcomes can also be seen as the result of other processes 
 + 
 +====Non-cognitive processes==== 
 + 
 +  * Pre-verbal links 
 +  * Early in life - babies cry in presence of other crying babies. 
 +  * Motor mimicry, simply following other's gestures creates an emotional link - also used later in life.  
 + 
 +====Simple cognitive processes==== 
 + 
 +  * 'Classical conditioning' sharing an intense emotional experience with another person, allows you to learn the connection between responses and situations. Later you can relate a similar response in another person with the event you've experienced. 
 +  * Internal labeling of situations with appropriate responses. 
 + 
 +====Advanced cognitive processes==== 
 + 
 +  * Language understanding (even alone, in situations like engaging with characters in a book) 
 +  * 'Role taking' - imagining yourself in another's perspective.  
 + 
 +All these can operate simultaneously. 
 + 
 +====Intrapersonal outcomes==== 
 +  * Internal changes, expressed or not 
 +  * Affective outcomes 
 +    * Parallel - same emotion, motor mimicry 
 +    * Reactive - merge own with other's reactions (distress, sympathy or gloating). 
 + 
 +Accuracy of understanding is determined by: 
 +  * Similarity and familiarity with subject 
 +  * Difference between explaining your own behaviours and others (tend to be situational forces vs personality characteristics) 
 + 
 +====Interpersonal outcomes==== 
 + 
 +Changes in behavior resulting from empathic processes: 
 + 
 +  * Helping 
 +  * Aggression 
 +  * Social behavior 
 + 
 + 
 +=====OCC Theory=====
  
   * [[http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=dA3JEEAp6TsC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=Ortony,+A.,+Clore,+G.,+and+Collins,+A.+1988.+The+cognitive+structure+of+emotions.&ots=HTQyRraQl9&sig=a5m-jC_3utlwQVJ1V2EMTNl1Dy8#v=onepage&q&f=false|Ortony, A., Clore, G., and Collins, A. 1988. The cognitive structure of emotions. University Press, Cambridge]]   * [[http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=dA3JEEAp6TsC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=Ortony,+A.,+Clore,+G.,+and+Collins,+A.+1988.+The+cognitive+structure+of+emotions.&ots=HTQyRraQl9&sig=a5m-jC_3utlwQVJ1V2EMTNl1Dy8#v=onepage&q&f=false|Ortony, A., Clore, G., and Collins, A. 1988. The cognitive structure of emotions. University Press, Cambridge]]
-  * [[http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&source=web&ct=res&cd=2&ved=0CA8QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fciteseerx.ist.psu.edu%2Fviewdoc%2Fdownload%3Fdoi%3D10.1.1.63.4323%26rep%3Drep1%26type%3Dpdf&rct=j&q=integrating+the+occ+model+in+embodied&ei=_lPhS5_ULML__Aap28HCAg&usg=AFQjCNGNAIn1IMOtmo6WGYd5_8WPwQtOCA|Integrating the OCC Model of Emotions in Embodied Characters]]+ 
 +Used as the basis of [[lirec:FAtiMA]]
  
   * Appraisal of events -> Emotions   * Appraisal of events -> Emotions
 +  * Appraisals can be checked and are learned over time
 +
 +Appraisals are carried out on:
 +
 +  * Objects regarding their appealingness
 +  * Agents regarding the praiseworthyness of their actions
 +  * Outcomes of events regarding their desirability, for the agent itself, or for others.
 +
 +The OCC model has a set of emotional categories:
 +
 +  * Fortunes of others: Happy-For, Resentment, Gloating, Pity
 +  * Prospect based: Satisfaction, Relief, Fear-confirmed, Disappointment
 +  * Well being: Joy, Distress
 +  * Attribution: Pride, Shame, Admiration, Reproach
 +  * Well being/Attribution compounds: Gratification, Gratitude, Remorse, Anger
 +  * Attraction: Love, Hate
 +
 +The five phases of emotion processing
 +
 +  1. Classification: Event, action or object, according to emotional cateories
 +  2. Quantification: What are the intensities?
 +  3. Interaction: With the current emotional categories of the agent
 +  4. Mapping: 22 emotional categories to lower number of emotional expressions
 +  5. Expression: face expression etc.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +{{:occ2.png|}}
 +
 +  * [[http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&source=web&ct=res&cd=2&ved=0CA8QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fciteseerx.ist.psu.edu%2Fviewdoc%2Fdownload%3Fdoi%3D10.1.1.63.4323%26rep%3Drep1%26type%3Dpdf&rct=j&q=integrating+the+occ+model+in+embodied&ei=_lPhS5_ULML__Aap28HCAg&usg=AFQjCNGNAIn1IMOtmo6WGYd5_8WPwQtOCA|Integrating the OCC Model of Emotions in Embodied Characters]]
 +
  
 =====PSI===== =====PSI=====
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