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psychological_models_of_empathy [2010-05-06 11:33]
davegriffiths
psychological_models_of_empathy [2010-05-10 10:33] (current)
davegriffiths
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   * Affective empathy - includes the emotional reaction to other's internal state   * Affective empathy - includes the emotional reaction to other's internal state
  
-=====Emotional Contagion=====+====Emotional Contagion====
  
 Affective empathy can come from cognitive empathy, but can also come from direct transfer of emotions - "emotional contagion". This is important for social identity and group dynamics - eg. a herd needing to react quickly to the presence of a predator, which may only be spotted by a few individuals. Affective empathy can come from cognitive empathy, but can also come from direct transfer of emotions - "emotional contagion". This is important for social identity and group dynamics - eg. a herd needing to react quickly to the presence of a predator, which may only be spotted by a few individuals.
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 Emotional contagion may result in different immediate responses in more complex situations, such as 'gloating'. Emotional contagion may result in different immediate responses in more complex situations, such as 'gloating'.
  
-=====Empathic processes======+====Empathic processes=====
  
 The separation of empathy into cognition and it's results are important because the outcomes can also be seen as the result of other processes.  The separation of empathy into cognition and it's results are important because the outcomes can also be seen as the result of other processes. 
  
-=====Non-cognitive processes=====+====Non-cognitive processes====
  
   * Pre-verbal links   * Pre-verbal links
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   * Motor mimicry, simply following other's gestures creates an emotional link - also used later in life.    * Motor mimicry, simply following other's gestures creates an emotional link - also used later in life. 
  
-=====Simple cognitive processes=====+====Simple cognitive processes====
  
   * 'Classical conditioning' sharing an intense emotional experience with another person, allows you to learn the connection between responses and situations. Later you can relate a similar response in another person with the event you've experienced.   * 'Classical conditioning' sharing an intense emotional experience with another person, allows you to learn the connection between responses and situations. Later you can relate a similar response in another person with the event you've experienced.
   * Internal labeling of situations with appropriate responses.   * Internal labeling of situations with appropriate responses.
  
-=====Advanced cognitive processes=====+====Advanced cognitive processes====
  
   * Language understanding (even alone, in situations like engaging with characters in a book)   * Language understanding (even alone, in situations like engaging with characters in a book)
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 All these can operate simultaneously. All these can operate simultaneously.
  
-=====Intrapersonal outcomes=====+====Intrapersonal outcomes====
   * Internal changes, expressed or not   * Internal changes, expressed or not
   * Affective outcomes   * Affective outcomes
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   * Difference between explaining your own behaviours and others (tend to be situational forces vs personality characteristics)   * Difference between explaining your own behaviours and others (tend to be situational forces vs personality characteristics)
  
-=====Interpersonal outcomes=====+====Interpersonal outcomes====
  
 Changes in behavior resulting from empathic processes: Changes in behavior resulting from empathic processes:
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-=====OCC Theory (used for FAtiMA)===== +=====OCC Theory=====
- +
-{{:occ.png|}}+
  
   * [[http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=dA3JEEAp6TsC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=Ortony,+A.,+Clore,+G.,+and+Collins,+A.+1988.+The+cognitive+structure+of+emotions.&ots=HTQyRraQl9&sig=a5m-jC_3utlwQVJ1V2EMTNl1Dy8#v=onepage&q&f=false|Ortony, A., Clore, G., and Collins, A. 1988. The cognitive structure of emotions. University Press, Cambridge]]   * [[http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=dA3JEEAp6TsC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=Ortony,+A.,+Clore,+G.,+and+Collins,+A.+1988.+The+cognitive+structure+of+emotions.&ots=HTQyRraQl9&sig=a5m-jC_3utlwQVJ1V2EMTNl1Dy8#v=onepage&q&f=false|Ortony, A., Clore, G., and Collins, A. 1988. The cognitive structure of emotions. University Press, Cambridge]]
-  * [[http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&source=web&ct=res&cd=2&ved=0CA8QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fciteseerx.ist.psu.edu%2Fviewdoc%2Fdownload%3Fdoi%3D10.1.1.63.4323%26rep%3Drep1%26type%3Dpdf&rct=j&q=integrating+the+occ+model+in+embodied&ei=_lPhS5_ULML__Aap28HCAg&usg=AFQjCNGNAIn1IMOtmo6WGYd5_8WPwQtOCA|Integrating the OCC Model of Emotions in Embodied Characters]]+ 
 +Used as the basis of [[lirec:FAtiMA]]
  
   * Appraisal of events -> Emotions   * Appraisal of events -> Emotions
 +  * Appraisals can be checked and are learned over time
 +
 +Appraisals are carried out on:
 +
 +  * Objects regarding their appealingness
 +  * Agents regarding the praiseworthyness of their actions
 +  * Outcomes of events regarding their desirability, for the agent itself, or for others.
 +
 +The OCC model has a set of emotional categories:
 +
 +  * Fortunes of others: Happy-For, Resentment, Gloating, Pity
 +  * Prospect based: Satisfaction, Relief, Fear-confirmed, Disappointment
 +  * Well being: Joy, Distress
 +  * Attribution: Pride, Shame, Admiration, Reproach
 +  * Well being/Attribution compounds: Gratification, Gratitude, Remorse, Anger
 +  * Attraction: Love, Hate
 +
 +The five phases of emotion processing
 +
 +  1. Classification: Event, action or object, according to emotional cateories
 +  2. Quantification: What are the intensities?
 +  3. Interaction: With the current emotional categories of the agent
 +  4. Mapping: 22 emotional categories to lower number of emotional expressions
 +  5. Expression: face expression etc.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +{{:occ2.png|}}
 +
 +  * [[http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&source=web&ct=res&cd=2&ved=0CA8QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fciteseerx.ist.psu.edu%2Fviewdoc%2Fdownload%3Fdoi%3D10.1.1.63.4323%26rep%3Drep1%26type%3Dpdf&rct=j&q=integrating+the+occ+model+in+embodied&ei=_lPhS5_ULML__Aap28HCAg&usg=AFQjCNGNAIn1IMOtmo6WGYd5_8WPwQtOCA|Integrating the OCC Model of Emotions in Embodied Characters]]
 +
  
 =====PSI===== =====PSI=====
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