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the_art_of_futuring [2021-04-13 11:30]
maja [Futuring Techniques]
the_art_of_futuring [2021-04-13 17:05] (current)
nik
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 ===== Futuring Techniques ===== ===== Futuring Techniques =====
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 The Art of Futuring Workshop offered a hands-on experience of futuring techniques for artists, arts organisations and other members of the cultural proletariat. In addition to mainstream futuring methods like horizon scanning or scenario building, we looked at techniques that are related to (or can be useful for) performing arts. Futuring techniques were introduced through experiential learning. We experimented with techniques for analysing the current situation and emergent signals. We speculated on future scenarios and prototype futures as embodied experiences in the present. We used these experiments to reflect on the futuring methods, on the applicability of futuring in the participants' work and life, and on the need for a more widespread futures literacy in uncertain times.  The Art of Futuring Workshop offered a hands-on experience of futuring techniques for artists, arts organisations and other members of the cultural proletariat. In addition to mainstream futuring methods like horizon scanning or scenario building, we looked at techniques that are related to (or can be useful for) performing arts. Futuring techniques were introduced through experiential learning. We experimented with techniques for analysing the current situation and emergent signals. We speculated on future scenarios and prototype futures as embodied experiences in the present. We used these experiments to reflect on the futuring methods, on the applicability of futuring in the participants' work and life, and on the need for a more widespread futures literacy in uncertain times. 
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-=== Divination ===+==== Divination ====
  
 Divination could be considered as the prehistory of futuring, from the mythical past of futures studies. To honor this lineage, we began the workshop by using a contemporary version of Tarot, to add an element of chance and playfulness in the introduction round. The participants were invited to pick one card from [[http://superflux.in/index.php/and-now-for-something-completely-different/#|Instant Archetypes]] from Superflux, describe what they see in the card and speculate on what it might mean for them and their role in the workshop. Instant Archetypes are "a toolkit for anyone looking to open up possibilities, surface questions and untangle stubborn challenges. A reimagining of the timeless tropes of the Major Arcana for the 21st Century where the Fool is now the Consumer, the Chariot is a Drone, and the Moon is a Meme." Divination could be considered as the prehistory of futuring, from the mythical past of futures studies. To honor this lineage, we began the workshop by using a contemporary version of Tarot, to add an element of chance and playfulness in the introduction round. The participants were invited to pick one card from [[http://superflux.in/index.php/and-now-for-something-completely-different/#|Instant Archetypes]] from Superflux, describe what they see in the card and speculate on what it might mean for them and their role in the workshop. Instant Archetypes are "a toolkit for anyone looking to open up possibilities, surface questions and untangle stubborn challenges. A reimagining of the timeless tropes of the Major Arcana for the 21st Century where the Fool is now the Consumer, the Chariot is a Drone, and the Moon is a Meme."
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----- +==== Card games ====
- +
- +
-=== Card games ===+
  
 The first session of the workshop introduced a few futuring concepts in a playful setting. By playing card games the participants learned about constraints, wild cards, [[:/futurist_fieldguide/four_generic_futures|Four Generic Futures]] and speculative artefacts The first session of the workshop introduced a few futuring concepts in a playful setting. By playing card games the participants learned about constraints, wild cards, [[:/futurist_fieldguide/four_generic_futures|Four Generic Futures]] and speculative artefacts
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- +==== Past and present ====
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- +
-=== Past and present ===+
  
 <blockquote>We’re conditioned to see the present moment as “normal,” with all the banality that implies. This is not a banal moment. It’s the sort of intense, chaotic moment, full of strange things, that we previously only found in science fiction. “Right now” feels like all of science fiction happening at once, and needs to be considered in that context  <blockquote>We’re conditioned to see the present moment as “normal,” with all the banality that implies. This is not a banal moment. It’s the sort of intense, chaotic moment, full of strange things, that we previously only found in science fiction. “Right now” feels like all of science fiction happening at once, and needs to be considered in that context 
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 </blockquote> </blockquote>
  
- +==== Horizon scanning ====
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- +
-=== Horizon scanning ===+
  
 Horizon scanning is about tracking change in the past and present, to anticipate how this change might evolve in the future. It is about collecting signals of change current developments and collating them into trends and forces/drivers of change. Sometimes signals  can be quite weak or point to possible but improbable changes (wild cards).  Horizon scanning is about tracking change in the past and present, to anticipate how this change might evolve in the future. It is about collecting signals of change current developments and collating them into trends and forces/drivers of change. Sometimes signals  can be quite weak or point to possible but improbable changes (wild cards). 
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 A few notes on terminology. Horizon scanning investigates different types of changes: signals (including weak signals and wild cards) trends and megatrends (drivers/forces of change). Signals are things you come across that point to possible futures. Weak signals are early warnings that something is changing in unexpected ways. Something that doesn't seem important in the present, but could trigger a major change in the future. They might appear in your peripheral vision or a random conversation, often when you aren't looking for them. Trends are tendencies and directions of change. They can be observed when analysing past and present signals, and noticing patterns over time. Megatrends (aka drivers or forces of change) are longer-term shifts with wider-reaching consequences. They are observed over decades (or longer) and have impact across most if not all societal sectors. Finally, we the most unpredictable aspect of horizon scanning are the so called "wild cards", or "[[black swan]]" events. These are events that are unlikely to happen, but when they do they affect massive change.  A few notes on terminology. Horizon scanning investigates different types of changes: signals (including weak signals and wild cards) trends and megatrends (drivers/forces of change). Signals are things you come across that point to possible futures. Weak signals are early warnings that something is changing in unexpected ways. Something that doesn't seem important in the present, but could trigger a major change in the future. They might appear in your peripheral vision or a random conversation, often when you aren't looking for them. Trends are tendencies and directions of change. They can be observed when analysing past and present signals, and noticing patterns over time. Megatrends (aka drivers or forces of change) are longer-term shifts with wider-reaching consequences. They are observed over decades (or longer) and have impact across most if not all societal sectors. Finally, we the most unpredictable aspect of horizon scanning are the so called "wild cards", or "[[black swan]]" events. These are events that are unlikely to happen, but when they do they affect massive change. 
  
-Read more about horizon scanning [[:/futurist_fieldguide/horizon_scanning|here]].\\ +Read more about [[:/futurist_fieldguide/horizon_scanning|horizon scanning]].
-An example of a horizon scanning aggregate website: http://community.iknowfutures.eu/+
  
- +==== STEEP analysis ====
-== STEEP analysis ==+
  
 You can use the STEEP analysis to classify different types of trends and signals in horizon scanning. STEEP stands for 'social, technological, environmental, economic and political' factors (aka trends, forces, change drivers) that are external to the system, issue or question examined in the futuring exercise, but can influence it. You can use the STEEP analysis to classify different types of trends and signals in horizon scanning. STEEP stands for 'social, technological, environmental, economic and political' factors (aka trends, forces, change drivers) that are external to the system, issue or question examined in the futuring exercise, but can influence it.
  
-Read more about STEEP analysis [[:/futurist_fieldguide/steep|here]]+Read more about [[:/futurist_fieldguide/steep|STEEP analysis]]
    
-//However, as discussed at the workshop, STEEP is just one way to categorise the information gleaned in horizon scanning. Everyone has their own ways of collecting information and translating it into useful knowledge. //+(However, as discussed at the workshop, STEEP is just one way to categorise the information gleaned in horizon scanning. Everyone has their own ways of collecting information and translating it into useful knowledge.)
  
 Another futuring technique often used in horizon scanning is [[:/futurist_fieldguide/futures_wheel|The Futures Wheel]]. Another futuring technique often used in horizon scanning is [[:/futurist_fieldguide/futures_wheel|The Futures Wheel]].
- 
- 
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-=== Causal Layered Analysis ===+==== Causal Layered Analysis ====
  
 Causal layered analysis is a futures research method focusing on in-depth analysis of current issues and identifying alternative futures. At the Art of Futuring Workshop we used CLA in the horizon scanning exercise, but we discussed its potential as a scenario building technique as well.  Causal layered analysis is a futures research method focusing on in-depth analysis of current issues and identifying alternative futures. At the Art of Futuring Workshop we used CLA in the horizon scanning exercise, but we discussed its potential as a scenario building technique as well. 
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 <blockquote> As a theory [CLA] seeks to integrate empiricist, interpretive, critical, and action learning modes of knowing. As a method, its utility is not in predicting the future but in creating transformative spaces for the creation of alternative futures. It is also likely to be useful in developing more effective—deeper, inclusive, longer term—policy.  <blockquote> As a theory [CLA] seeks to integrate empiricist, interpretive, critical, and action learning modes of knowing. As a method, its utility is not in predicting the future but in creating transformative spaces for the creation of alternative futures. It is also likely to be useful in developing more effective—deeper, inclusive, longer term—policy. 
-- [[http://metafuture.org/cla%20papers/Inayatullah%20%20Causal%20layered%20analysis%20-%20theory,%20historical%20context,%20and%20case%20studies.%20Intro%20chapter%20from%20The%20CLA%20Reader..pdf|Sohail Inayatullah]] 
  
 +—[[http://metafuture.org/cla%20papers/Inayatullah%20%20Causal%20layered%20analysis%20-%20theory,%20historical%20context,%20and%20case%20studies.%20Intro%20chapter%20from%20The%20CLA%20Reader..pdf|Sohail Inayatullah]]
 </blockquote>   </blockquote>  
  
 <html><a href="https://38.media.tumblr.com/7aca57b3f430dad3779e1a054584edd0/tumblr_inline_mzybcuGj911qc578m.jpg"><img src="https://38.media.tumblr.com/7aca57b3f430dad3779e1a054584edd0/tumblr_inline_mzybcuGj911qc578m.jpg"></a></html> <html><a href="https://38.media.tumblr.com/7aca57b3f430dad3779e1a054584edd0/tumblr_inline_mzybcuGj911qc578m.jpg"><img src="https://38.media.tumblr.com/7aca57b3f430dad3779e1a054584edd0/tumblr_inline_mzybcuGj911qc578m.jpg"></a></html>
  
- +==== Scenario building ====
- +
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- +
- +
-=== Scenario building ===+
  
 There are many different techniques for scenario building, from [[:futurist_fieldguide/four_generic_futures|The Four Generic Futures]] that we introduced in the card games, to CLA, [[https://thevoroscope.com/2017/02/24/the-futures-cone-use-and-history/|The Futures Cone]] and many others. At the Art of Futuring workshop we used the old 2x2 double uncertainty, adapted from the technique described by Peter Schwartz in The Art of the Long View. This method creates evocative, albeit not too surprising scenarios, which tend to be useful caricatures of the present than radically imaginative futures.  There are many different techniques for scenario building, from [[:futurist_fieldguide/four_generic_futures|The Four Generic Futures]] that we introduced in the card games, to CLA, [[https://thevoroscope.com/2017/02/24/the-futures-cone-use-and-history/|The Futures Cone]] and many others. At the Art of Futuring workshop we used the old 2x2 double uncertainty, adapted from the technique described by Peter Schwartz in The Art of the Long View. This method creates evocative, albeit not too surprising scenarios, which tend to be useful caricatures of the present than radically imaginative futures. 
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 Below is a diagram of the GBN approach as a whole method. At the Art of Futuring we used this approach to rank critical uncertainties, create scenario axes and scenario skeletons. Below is a diagram of the GBN approach as a whole method. At the Art of Futuring we used this approach to rank critical uncertainties, create scenario axes and scenario skeletons.
  
-{{ :resilients:scenario-process-diagram.png?1000 |Visual translation of 'Steps to developing scenarios' by P. Schwartz}} +{{:resilients:scenario-process-diagram.png?1000 |Visual translation of 'Steps to developing scenarios' by P. Schwartz}}
- +
- +
----- +
  
  
-=== Incasting ===+==== Incasting ====
  
 Incasting is about delving deeper into scenarios to create more complete worlds and stories filled with rich detail. While it's often fairly easy to agree on the general outline of a scenario, elaborating the specifics and complexities can raise surprising and revealing discussions. By exploring the details of a given scenario, various inconsistencies, assumptions and (cognitive) biases can surface. Furthermore, when incasting is applied to familiar contexts and using known formats, the differences and similarities between the present and future can become more apparent and open to further examination. Incasting is about delving deeper into scenarios to create more complete worlds and stories filled with rich detail. While it's often fairly easy to agree on the general outline of a scenario, elaborating the specifics and complexities can raise surprising and revealing discussions. By exploring the details of a given scenario, various inconsistencies, assumptions and (cognitive) biases can surface. Furthermore, when incasting is applied to familiar contexts and using known formats, the differences and similarities between the present and future can become more apparent and open to further examination.
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 At the Art of Futuring workshop we used several approaches to incasting: At the Art of Futuring workshop we used several approaches to incasting:
  
-== Answering the core question ==+=== Answering the core question ===
  
 We asked the core question from the vantage points of different scenarios, to uncover four very different answers.  We asked the core question from the vantage points of different scenarios, to uncover four very different answers. 
  
-== Visualising scenario answers ==+=== Visualising scenario answers ===
  
 We visualised the answers as posters / moodboards, to get a sense of the divergent look-and-feel of the alternative futures. Read more about creating moodboards [[:/futurist_fieldguide/moodboards|here]]. Making a poster is similar to creating the front page of a newspaper or magazine. Read more about this approach [[:futurist_fieldguide/newspaper|here]]. We visualised the answers as posters / moodboards, to get a sense of the divergent look-and-feel of the alternative futures. Read more about creating moodboards [[:/futurist_fieldguide/moodboards|here]]. Making a poster is similar to creating the front page of a newspaper or magazine. Read more about this approach [[:futurist_fieldguide/newspaper|here]].
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-== Closed eye visioning / mental time travel ==+=== Closed eye visioning / mental time travel ===
  
 Closed eye visioning is a meditative/introspective technique where the participants explore different scenarios with their eyes closed, guided by the facilitator’s open questions. You can find the text read by the facilitator at the Art of Futuring Workshop {{ ::aof-timetravel.pdf |here}}. This text used elements of [[https://libarynth.org/futurist_fieldguide/day_in_the_life|"a day in the life"]] technique, to imagine what a day in each of the scenarios might feel like for individual participants.  Closed eye visioning is a meditative/introspective technique where the participants explore different scenarios with their eyes closed, guided by the facilitator’s open questions. You can find the text read by the facilitator at the Art of Futuring Workshop {{ ::aof-timetravel.pdf |here}}. This text used elements of [[https://libarynth.org/futurist_fieldguide/day_in_the_life|"a day in the life"]] technique, to imagine what a day in each of the scenarios might feel like for individual participants. 
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 Here is a description of a similar closed eye visioning exercise, using four generic futures: https://libarynth.org/futurist_fieldguide/closed_eye_visioning Here is a description of a similar closed eye visioning exercise, using four generic futures: https://libarynth.org/futurist_fieldguide/closed_eye_visioning
  
-{{>http://www.flickr.com/photos/foam/33474762488/in/dateposted/}}\\+{{>http://www.flickr.com/photos/foam/33474762488/}}
  
  
- +=== Personal backstory ===
-== Personal backstory ==+
  
 <blockquote> A backstory is a set of events invented for a plot, presented as preceding and leading up to that plot. It is a literary device of a narrative history all chronologically earlier than the narrative of primary interest. (...) It is the history of characters and other elements that underlie the situation existing at the main narrative's start. <blockquote> A backstory is a set of events invented for a plot, presented as preceding and leading up to that plot. It is a literary device of a narrative history all chronologically earlier than the narrative of primary interest. (...) It is the history of characters and other elements that underlie the situation existing at the main narrative's start.
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 The purpose of writing out a personal backstory is to make the scenario more concrete for the participants' lives. By having to think what would have to happen to them to get to such a scenario helps ground what is essentially speculative fiction into the real life of real people. The purpose of writing out a personal backstory is to make the scenario more concrete for the participants' lives. By having to think what would have to happen to them to get to such a scenario helps ground what is essentially speculative fiction into the real life of real people.
  
- +==== Prototyping ====
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- +
- +
-=== Prototyping ===+
  
 Talking and writing stories about the future can be made more tangible and accessible by using drawings, images and other (audio)visual media, physical objects and artefacts. The creed "//Use a picture. It’s worth a thousand words//" applies to futures too. An image can convey an atmosphere of a future at a glance; a video can tell its story in a few minutes; an object can add a tactile, perhaps even olfactory or gustatory dimension. Talking and writing stories about the future can be made more tangible and accessible by using drawings, images and other (audio)visual media, physical objects and artefacts. The creed "//Use a picture. It’s worth a thousand words//" applies to futures too. An image can convey an atmosphere of a future at a glance; a video can tell its story in a few minutes; an object can add a tactile, perhaps even olfactory or gustatory dimension.
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 At the Art of Futuring workshop we used the following prototyping techniques: At the Art of Futuring workshop we used the following prototyping techniques:
  
-== Personal profile page ==+=== Personal profile page ===
  
 One of the scenario axes at the Art of Futuring Workshop was looking at (de)centralisation of social media. This exercise was designed to apply an important element of scenario logic (alternative futures of social media) to a phenomenon that is familiar to all participant, such as a personal profile page. In designing such a page from the vantage point of different scenarios, the participants were invited to think about its content and format; about things that they would share about themselves in different futures, etc.  One of the scenario axes at the Art of Futuring Workshop was looking at (de)centralisation of social media. This exercise was designed to apply an important element of scenario logic (alternative futures of social media) to a phenomenon that is familiar to all participant, such as a personal profile page. In designing such a page from the vantage point of different scenarios, the participants were invited to think about its content and format; about things that they would share about themselves in different futures, etc. 
  
  
-==Postcards from the future ==+===Postcards from the future ===
  
 To embody elements of the scenarios, we created "Tableau Vivants" at the Art of Futuring workshop. They were collective photographs that would "appear on the profile pages" of the participants.  To embody elements of the scenarios, we created "Tableau Vivants" at the Art of Futuring workshop. They were collective photographs that would "appear on the profile pages" of the participants. 
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 {{>http://www.flickr.com/photos/foam/40385138183/in/dateposted/}}\\ {{>http://www.flickr.com/photos/foam/40385138183/in/dateposted/}}\\
  
- +===== Preferred futures =====
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- +
-==== Preferred futures ====+
  
 Aside from working with multiple, alternative futures, there are techniques that work with preferred futures, and help us understand their relationship with the past and present.  Aside from working with multiple, alternative futures, there are techniques that work with preferred futures, and help us understand their relationship with the past and present. 
  
-=== Appreciative Inquiry ===+==== Appreciative Inquiry ====
  
 Appreciative Inquiry (AI) is a method that focuses on creating preferred futures starting from the strengths, successes and unique attributes of a system or a group in the past and present. AI is grounded in a belief that in any situation there is something that works well. From this position of appreciation, it encourages the participants to discover their aspirations, desires and images of futures they would like to see.  Appreciative Inquiry (AI) is a method that focuses on creating preferred futures starting from the strengths, successes and unique attributes of a system or a group in the past and present. AI is grounded in a belief that in any situation there is something that works well. From this position of appreciation, it encourages the participants to discover their aspirations, desires and images of futures they would like to see. 
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 At the Art of Futuring Workshop we explored the [[:futurist_fieldguide/appreciative_inquiry_interviews|discovery phase]] of appreciative inquiry. Read more about appreciative inquiry [[:futurist_fieldguide/appreciative_inquiry|here]]. At the Art of Futuring Workshop we explored the [[:futurist_fieldguide/appreciative_inquiry_interviews|discovery phase]] of appreciative inquiry. Read more about appreciative inquiry [[:futurist_fieldguide/appreciative_inquiry|here]].
  
- +==== Backcasting ====
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- +
- +
-=== Backcasting ===+
  
 <blockquote>Backcasting is a planning method that starts with defining a desirable future and then works backwards to identify policies and programs that will connect that specified future to the present. (...) The fundamental question of backcasting asks: "if we want to attain a certain goal, what actions must be taken to get there?"  <blockquote>Backcasting is a planning method that starts with defining a desirable future and then works backwards to identify policies and programs that will connect that specified future to the present. (...) The fundamental question of backcasting asks: "if we want to attain a certain goal, what actions must be taken to get there?" 
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 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Backcasting </blockquote> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Backcasting </blockquote>
  
-== TOC Outcomes Framework ==+==== TOC Outcomes Framework ====
  
 At the Art of futuring workshop we used the Theory of Change Outcomes Framework to experiment with backcasting. At the Art of futuring workshop we used the Theory of Change Outcomes Framework to experiment with backcasting.
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 Read more about TOC Outcomes Framework [[https://www.theoryofchange.org/what-is-theory-of-change/how-does-theory-of-change-work/example/completing-the-framework/|here]]. Read more about TOC Outcomes Framework [[https://www.theoryofchange.org/what-is-theory-of-change/how-does-theory-of-change-work/example/completing-the-framework/|here]].
  
- +==== Prehearsal ====
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- +
- +
-=== Prehearsal ===+
  
 A prehearsal is an improvised situation of short duration, a try-out of a scenario focusing on the player’s behaviours and interactions, using minimal props and setup. The prehearsed situation should be familiar enough to the participants, so they can focus on the content rather than the form of the prehearsal. The difference between role playing and a prehearsal is that the participants do not assume the role of another character, but play themselves in different situations. A prehearsal is an improvised situation of short duration, a try-out of a scenario focusing on the player’s behaviours and interactions, using minimal props and setup. The prehearsed situation should be familiar enough to the participants, so they can focus on the content rather than the form of the prehearsal. The difference between role playing and a prehearsal is that the participants do not assume the role of another character, but play themselves in different situations.
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 At the Art of Futuring Workshop we only had one (optional) session where the participants were invited to design a prehearsal, but we did not get a chance to enact it. The participants developed a more elaborate plan than a simple prehearsal. They designed a "pre-enactment".   At the Art of Futuring Workshop we only had one (optional) session where the participants were invited to design a prehearsal, but we did not get a chance to enact it. The participants developed a more elaborate plan than a simple prehearsal. They designed a "pre-enactment".  
  
-== Pre-enactment ==+=== Pre-enactment ===
  
 Pre-enactments are inspired by large-scale larps and re-enactments, but rather than enacting an historical or fictional situation, the participants preenact a situation that may exist in their future. During a pre-enactment, a scenario comes to life as a “first-person experience”. Participants can explore what their life might be like in a specific possible future. In order for the experience to be believable, the broad strokes of a scenario need to be filled with the mundane details of daily life, which can include things like food, clothing, tools, work-spaces, interfaces, events, rituals, etc. Elaborating an experience in such detail can help point to inconsistencies between the ideas in the scenario and the gritty reality, between the images of the future and their embodied manifestations.  Pre-enactments are inspired by large-scale larps and re-enactments, but rather than enacting an historical or fictional situation, the participants preenact a situation that may exist in their future. During a pre-enactment, a scenario comes to life as a “first-person experience”. Participants can explore what their life might be like in a specific possible future. In order for the experience to be believable, the broad strokes of a scenario need to be filled with the mundane details of daily life, which can include things like food, clothing, tools, work-spaces, interfaces, events, rituals, etc. Elaborating an experience in such detail can help point to inconsistencies between the ideas in the scenario and the gritty reality, between the images of the future and their embodied manifestations. 
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 Read more about pre-enactments [[:/futurist_fieldguide/pre-enactment|here]] Read more about pre-enactments [[:/futurist_fieldguide/pre-enactment|here]]
  
- +==== Invocation ====
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- +
- +
-=== Invocation ===+
  
 We started the Art of Futuring Workshop with divination, an ancient technique to probe the unknown futures. We ended it with another one: invocation. We started the Art of Futuring Workshop with divination, an ancient technique to probe the unknown futures. We ended it with another one: invocation.
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 At the Art of Futuring Workshop we invoked: one thing for yourself, one for the group and one for all beings. We used our voices and bodies to project our intent into the space, hoping to invoke these realities into being... At the Art of Futuring Workshop we invoked: one thing for yourself, one for the group and one for all beings. We used our voices and bodies to project our intent into the space, hoping to invoke these realities into being...
  
- +===== Process facilitation =====
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- +
- +
-==== Process facilitation ====+
  
  
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-=== Asking questions ===+==== Asking questions ====
  
  
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-=== Dot-voting ===+==== Dot-voting ====
  
 Dot-voting is a facilitation method used to describe voting with dot stickers or markers. Dot-voting is widely used for making quick collaborative decisions. It is a quick and simple method for prioritize a long list of options.  Dot-voting is a facilitation method used to describe voting with dot stickers or markers. Dot-voting is widely used for making quick collaborative decisions. It is a quick and simple method for prioritize a long list of options. 
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 Read more about dot-voting here: http://dotmocracy.org/dot-voting/ Read more about dot-voting here: http://dotmocracy.org/dot-voting/
  
-=== Sociometry ===+==== Sociometry ====
  
 Sociometry is a technique to visualise social relationships. It can show underlying patterns of a group which can be difficult to surface through conversation. A sociometric exercise begins with a question that the group is required to answer by moving in the space and finding appropriate positions for all its members relative to each other. Sociometry is a technique to visualise social relationships. It can show underlying patterns of a group which can be difficult to surface through conversation. A sociometric exercise begins with a question that the group is required to answer by moving in the space and finding appropriate positions for all its members relative to each other.
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-=== Theory U ===+==== Theory U ====
  
 The Art of Futuring Workshop was designed with the flow of the Theory-U in mind. we explicitly mentioned the U-Process in relation to our post-lunch silent reflection, meant to allow the participants to return to themselves and integrate the insights and experiences with their inner-life.   The Art of Futuring Workshop was designed with the flow of the Theory-U in mind. we explicitly mentioned the U-Process in relation to our post-lunch silent reflection, meant to allow the participants to return to themselves and integrate the insights and experiences with their inner-life.  
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- +==== Open Space =====
-=== Open Space ===+
  
 <blockquote> Open Space Technology (OST) is a method for organizing and running a meeting or multi-day conference, where participants have been invited in order to focus on a specific, important task or purpose. OST is a participant-driven process whose agenda is created by people attending.  <blockquote> Open Space Technology (OST) is a method for organizing and running a meeting or multi-day conference, where participants have been invited in order to focus on a specific, important task or purpose. OST is a participant-driven process whose agenda is created by people attending. 
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-=== Adaptive Action Cycle ===+==== Adaptive Action Cycle ====
  
  
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-{{>http://www.flickr.com/photos/foam/46627345314/}}\\ +{{>http://www.flickr.com/photos/foam/46627345314/}}
- +
-----+
  
-==== References ====+===== References =====
  
-A few formal references:+A few references:
  
   * [[https://jfsdigital.org/|Journal of Futures Studies]]   * [[https://jfsdigital.org/|Journal of Futures Studies]]
  • the_art_of_futuring.txt
  • Last modified: 2021-04-13 17:05
  • by nik